# POJ 3264 Balanced Lineup （RMQ）

## Description

For the daily milking, Farmer John’s N cows (1 ≤ N ≤ 50,000) always line up in the same order. One day Farmer John decides to organize a game of Ultimate Frisbee with some of the cows. To keep things simple, he will take a contiguous range of cows from the milking lineup to play the game. However, for all the cows to have fun they should not differ too much in height.

Farmer John has made a list of Q (1 ≤ Q ≤ 200,000) potential groups of cows and their heights (1 ≤ height ≤ 1,000,000). For each group, he wants your help to determine the difference in height between the shortest and the tallest cow in the group.

## Input

Line 1: Two space-separated integers, N and Q.

Lines 2..N+1: Line i+1 contains a single integer that is the height of cow i

Lines N+2..N+Q+1: Two integers A and B (1 ≤ A ≤ B ≤ N), representing the range of cows from A to B inclusive.

## Output

Lines 1..Q: Each line contains a single integer that is a response to a reply and indicates the difference in height between the tallest and shortest cow in the range.

## Sample Input

6 3
1
7
3
4
2
5
1 5
4 6
2 2


## Sample Output

6
3
0


## 思路

RMQ 问题，可使用 ST 算法解决， $O(n\log n)$ 的预处理， $O(1)$ 的查询，其实也就是一个区间dp啦~

dp[i][j] 代表以 j 为起点，区间长度为 $2^i$ 的特值，针对这一道题，我们有两个特值（最大值与最小值）。

## AC 代码

#include <iostream>
#include<cstdio>
#include<cstring>
using namespace std;

const int maxn = 51000;
const int inf = 0x3f3f3f;
int maxx[maxn];
int minn[maxn];
int n,q;

void rmq()
{
for(int i=1; (1<<i)<=n; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j+(1<<i)<=n; j++)
{
maxx[i][j]=max(maxx[i-1][j],maxx[i-1][j+(1<<(i-1))]);
minn[i][j]=min(minn[i-1][j],minn[i-1][j+(1<<(i-1))]);
}
}
}

int main()
{
while(~scanf("%d%d",&n,&q))
{
int x,y;
for(int i=0; i<n; i++)
{
scanf("%d",&x);
maxx[i]=minn[i]=x;
}
rmq();
for(int i=0; i<q; i++)
{
scanf("%d%d",&x,&y);
int len=0;
for(int i=0; 1<<(len+1)<=y-x+1; i++,len++);
int maxs = max(maxx[len][x-1],maxx[len][y-(1<<len)]);
int mins = min(minn[len][x-1],minn[len][y-(1<<len)]);
printf("%d\n",maxs-mins);
}
}
return 0;
}